In the case of decentralised water supplies (domestic water supplied from wells), the water must in many cases be treated before use. Relatively small filter systems are normally required for the domestic water supply. These are operated as a pressure filter system downstream of the feed pumps. GRP or coated steel are used as materials for the pressure filters. Operation can be either manual or automatic.
Iron and manganese occur in their dissolved state in raw water, and are therefore invisible. When the well water comes into contact with oxygen, the iron and manganese dissolved in the water oxidize. This causes water turbidity and brown deposits, which can be massive with higher iron and manganese contents. These deposits occur in pipes as well as in sinks, shower trays and toilet bowls.
These contaminants are retained in the filter during deferrization and demanganization. So-called sniffer valves are often used for the required oxygen enrichment. Periodic filter backwashing returns the filter to its original state. Sand filters are very robust and durable
Besides the classic filtration media, we also supply filter materials for catalytic demanganization or adsorptive materials such as granulated iron hydroxide for arsenic removal and activated carbon for the adsorption of chemical substances.
Aggressive carbonic acid greatly increases the corrosion rate in pipelines. A percolator for physical deacidification is not possible with small systems. For this reason, the excess carbonic acid is set off by reaction with alkaline filter materials. If the iron and manganese content is low, deacidification can be carried out with deferrization and possibly the demanganization in one filter stage. The deacidification material is consumed during the reaction and must be replenished regularly.
The water hardness refers to the concentration of the alkaline earths calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium dissolved in the water. Strontium and barium can be ignored in most cases. Calcium and magnesium are grouped together as hardeners. When softening by ion exchange, the calcium and magnesium ions are exchanged for sodium ions. Regeneration is carried out with a higher concentration of saline solution.
As with softening, special ion exchange resins are used in nitrate reduction. Ion exchangers require water that contains no iron or manganese. If necessary, a filter stage must be installed upstream of an ion exchanger.
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